The pre-nuraghic period

It is the period prior to the use of writing, the prehistory, but the name refers to the period preceding the nuraghic period. The first pre-nuraghic period is the Paleolithic or "stone age" (from 450,000 to 10,000 years BC). Humans has appeared in Sardinia from 450,000 years BC, during the lower Palaeolithic, in the northern area of Anglona, where artefacts made by stone have been found. During the period between 35,000 and 120,000 years BC. man in Sardinia did not leave traces, but reappeared in Oliena (Nuoro) about 35,000 years ago. The aftermath is the Mesolithic, intermediate and adaptation period between the life of hunter-gatherers of the stone age and the life of farmers and ranchers of the Neolithic. The only traces of human presence in Sardinia at this time are those found in Oliena, inside the Corbeddu cave, dating back 6,000-20,000 years BC. The Neolithic is the new stone age (in Sardinia from 6,000 to 2,800 years BC), the period in which settlers from Liguria, Spain, Africa and probably from Greece and Asia, landed on the southern coast of the island. These populations inhabited primarily the natural caves, where they also buried their dead; they practiced the cult of the Mother Goddess, the deity representing fertility of woman and nature. Other venerated God is Taurus, which represents the male principle and the strength. They practiced the cult of the dead, who were buried inside the underground caves carved into the stone, the so-called domus de janas (houses of the fairies or witches), structures that have been used until the Roman period. The necropolis contained various rooms, adorned with false columns, ceilings and doors, only to have the likeness of the houses of the living. Many caves contained carved taurine horns, in protecting dead, and sacrificial pits. The economic system was the type of agropastoral; during this period spreads the use of ceramics.

 

The Eneolithic (2,800-1,800 BC) marked the advent of metals, particularly arsenic bronze (alloy of bronze and arsenic). It is in this period that begin to develop the most impressive funerary monuments, the tombs of the Giants: the tombs consisted of a high stele at whose base was the hole for the introduction of the dead and the offers. Probably, at least initially, they were dedicated to the most powerful people, village leaders or divinized warriors. Their structure has evolved throughout the nuragic period.

 

The Nuragic Period

The name of this period, or "culture", derives from its most typical monument, the Nuraghe. This is a tower, built with large stones, whose rooms have a covering called "tholos". The fortified structure suggests a defensive function of the nuraghe, not only toward invaders coming from the sea, but also toward neighboring communities. The nuragic people lived in small settlements consisting of huts made by stone and thatch. The nuragic colonized the whole island, from the coast to the rocky headlands, and they practiced mostly agriculture and breeding activities and mining as well. The social structure was highly hierarchical, at the apex were the warriors and the men of religion. In this period appeared other sacred monuments: the sacred spring and the sacred well, both dedicated to the cult of the water (due to its scarcity on the island the water was deified).

 

Phoenician-Punic Period

This period marks the transition from prehistory to history. The Phoenicians (IX century-VI century BC), hailing from Lebanon, founded several colonies on the coasts of the Mediterranean, including the sardinian coast, with initially peaceful mode. Evidence of contact between the Nuragic, Phoenician and Greek peoples were found for example in the village of Sant'Imbenia (Alghero). The military clash took place when Sardinia passed under the control of the Phoenicians of Carthage, the Punics.

 

Roman period

The end of the first Punic War between Rome and Carthage, resulted in the passage of Sardinia in the hands of the Romans. In 228 BC Rome founded a new province encompassed Corsica, Sardinia and the surrounding islands. The Roman presence left deep traces in the Sardinian culture, for example in the Sardinian language that still presents clear evidence of its Latin origin.

 

Byzantine period

The Vandals took over the Romans, in the period between 460 and 467 A.C. The island was retaken by the Romans in 534 A.C., when the Roman Empire had already shifted his political barycenter to Constantinople. The Byzantines had entrusted the power of the island to two authorities: the "praeses" with civilian functions and the "dux" with military functions. Starting from 800, the two figures were merged in the figure of the "iudex" (judge or king).

 

Judicial period

Starting from the year 1000, the four judges, representatives of the Byzantine Empire, declared their independence. Until 1410 Sardinia was divided into 4 judged or kingdoms: Cagliari, Arborea, Torres and Gallura. It was the period in which the Church, through the donations of the Benedictines, promoted the revival of culture. Starting in 1250, the republics of Pisa and Genoa, who had business interests in the territory, destabilized the local authorities, leading to the end of all judged, except those of Arborea.

 

Aragonese and Spanish period

Between the end of the 1200 and the beginning of 1300, with the approval of Pope Boniface VIII, Alfonso of Aragon landed in Sardinia and conquered the province of Iglesias and Cagliari, at the expense of the Pisani. The occupation led the fall of the Giudicato of Arborea in 1410 and took away lands to households from Genova and Pisa (Doria and Malaspina), among which those of Alghero and Bosa.

 

The Savoy Period and the Kingdom of Italy

At the beginning of the 1700, the island passed under the Austrian control and subsequently under the Piedmontese control, before being annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in the 1800.

source: www.sardegnacultura.it

 

L'impresa è stata agevolata grazie all’avviso "promuovidea finanziamento nuova impresa" realizzato con il contributo del POR FSE 2007/2013 - Regione Sardegna - Asse II Occupabilità linee di attività e.1.2 ed e.3.1.

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